Earthquake Engineering Implementation Interface (EEII)
The purpose of the Earthquake Engineering Implementation Interface is to create and maintain collaborations with research and practicing engineers, much as the Seismic Hazard and Risk Analysis focus group did during SCEC3. These activities may include ground motion simulation validation, rupture-to-rafters simulations of building response as well as the end-to-end analysis of large-scale, distributed risk (e.g., ShakeOut-type scenarios). Our goal of impacting engineering practice and large-scale risk assessments require even broader partnerships with the engineering and risk-modeling communities, which motivates the activities described next.
Technical Activity Group (TAG) on Ground Motion Simulation Validation (GMSV)
A TAG focusing on validation of ground motion simulations has been established to develop and implement testing/rating methodologies via collaboration between ground motion modelers and engineering users. A 2011 workshop on this topic (http://www.scec.org/workshops/2011/gmsv/index.html) and the GSMV Plenary Session at the Annual Meeting identified the following initial efforts as potential priority activities in this area. Proposals on these topics will be reviewed with all other SCEC proposals in January of 2013. Interested researchers are invited to contact Dr. Nicolas Luco (firstname.lastname@example.org) to discuss opportunities for coordinated research. Note that any PIs funded to work on GMSV-related projects will become members of the TAG and will be required to coordinate with each other, in part via participation in approximately two coordination workshops.
- Generate simulated ground motions for the following past earthquakes, preferably (but not necessarily) via the Broadband Simulation Platform: 1971 San Fernando, 1979 Imperial Valley, 1983 Coalinga, 1984 Morgan Hill, 1986 North Palm Springs, 1987 Whittier Narrows, 1989 Loma Prieta, 1992 Landers, 1992 Big Bear, 1994 Northridge, 1999 Hector Mine, 2004 Parkfield, and 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah.
- Develop validation methodologies that use elastic and inelastic response spectra, and demonstrate them with existing simulated ground motions (preferably, but not necessarily, from the Broadband Simulation Platform) and their recorded counterparts.
- Develop and demonstrate validation methodologies that use common models of structures of interest (e.g. multi-degree-of-freedom nonlinear models of building or geotechnical systems).
- Comprehensive analysis and documentation of the sensitivity of simulated ground motions to model input parameters and their interactions and uncertainties.
- Research on important ground motion or structural (e.g. building or geotechnical system) response parameters and statistics that should be used in validation of simulations.
- Demonstrate validation methodologies with ground motions simulated with deterministic and stochastic methods above 1 Hz.
Improved Hazard Representation
- Develop improved hazard models that consider simulation-based earthquake source and wave propagation effects that are not already well reflected in observed data. These could include improved methods for incorporating rupture directivity effects, basin effects, and site effects in the USGS ground motion maps, for example. The improved models should be incorporated into OpenSHA.
- Use broadband strong motion simulations, possibly in conjunction with recorded ground motions, to develop ground motion prediction models (or attenuation relations). Broadband simulation methods must be verified (by comparison with simple test case results) and validated (against recorded strong ground motions) before use in model development. The verification, validation, and application of simulation methods must be done on the SCEC Broadband Simulation Platform. Such developments will contribute to the future NGA-H Project.
- Develop ground motion parameters (or intensity measures), whether scalars or vectors, that enhance the prediction of structural response and risk.
- Investigate bounds on the median and variability of ground motions for a given earthquake scenario, in coordination with the Extreme Ground Motion Project.
Ground Motion Time History Simulation
- Develop acceptance criteria for simulated ground motion time histories to be used in structural response analyses for building code applications or risk analysis. This relates closely to the GMSV section above.
- Assess the advantages and disadvantages of using simulated time histories in place of recorded time histories as they relate to the selection, scaling and/or modification of ground motions for building code applications or risk analysis.
- Develop and validate modules for simulation of short period ground motions (< 1 sec) for incorporation in the Broadband Platform.
- Develop and validate modules for the broadband simulation of ground motion time histories close to large earthquakes, and for earthquakes in the central and eastern United States, for incorporation in the Broadband Platform.
- Develop and validate modules for nonlinear site response, including models for under what circumstances nonlinear modeling is required.
Collaboration in Structural Response Analysis
- Tall Buildings and Other Long-Period Structures. Enhance the reliability of simulations of long period ground motions in the Los Angeles region using refinements in source characterization and seismic velocity models, and evaluate the impacts of these ground motions on tall buildings and other longperiod structures (e.g., bridges, waterfront structures). Such projects could potentially build on work done in the PEER TBI Project.
- End-to-End Simulation. Interactively identify the sensitivity of structural response to ground motion parameters and structural parameters through end-to-end simulation. Buildings of particular interest include non-ductile concrete frame buildings.
- Reference Buildings and Bridges. Participate with PEER investigators in the analysis of reference buildings and bridges using simulated broadband ground motion time histories. The ground motions of large, rare earthquakes, which are poorly represented in the NGA strong motion database, are of special interest. Coordination with PEER can be done through Yousef Bozorgnia
- Earthquake Scenarios. Perform detailed assessments of the results of scenarios such as the ShakeOut exercise, and the scenarios for which ground motions were generated for the Tall Buildings Initiative (including events on the Puente Hills, Southern San Andreas, Northern San Andreas and Hayward faults) as they relate to the relationship between ground motion characteristics and structural response and damage.
- Investigate the relationship between input ground motion characteristics and local soil nonlinear response, liquefaction, lateral spreading, local soil failure, and landslides -- i.e., geotechnical hazards. Investigate hazards due to surface faulting and to surface deformation caused by subsurface faulting and folding.
- Develop improved site/facility-specific and portfolio/regional risk analysis (or loss estimation) techniques and tools, and incorporate them into the OpenRisk software.
- Use risk analysis software to identify earthquake source and ground motion characteristics that control damage estimates.
- Proposals for other innovative projects that would further implement SCEC information and techniques in seismic hazard, earthquake engineering, risk analysis, and ultimately loss mitigation, are encouraged.