A new approach for 2-D and 3-D precise measurements of ground deformation from optimized registration and correlation of optical images and ICA-based filtering of image geometry artifacts

Saif Aati, Chris Milliner, & Jean-Philippe Avouac

Under Review 2022, SCEC Contribution #11828

The Planet PlanetScope cubesat constellation acquires high-resolution optical images which cover the entire surface of the Earth daily, enabling an unprecedented capability to monitor the Earth surface changes. However, our analysis reveals artifacts of the geometry of PlanetScope images related to the imaging system and processing issues, limiting the usability of these data for various earth science applications, including the monitoring of glaciers, dune motion, or the measurement of ground deformation due to earthquakes and landslides. Here we analyze these artifacts and propose ways to remedy them. We use two test sites to evaluate the data and assess the performance of our proposed approaches. The first is the ground deformation caused by the Ridgecrest earthquake sequence, and the second is the Shisper glacier surge. Using an image correlation technique, we show that PlanetScope images exhibit several geometric artifacts, such as scene-to-scene misregistration, inconsistence geolocation accuracy between spectral bands, and topographic artifacts. Altogether these artifacts make a quantitative analysis of ground displacement difficult and inaccurate. We present a method that remediates most of these geometric artifacts. In addition, we propose a framework for selecting the most appropriate images and a procedure for refining the Rational Function Model (RFM) of unrectified images to monitor surface displacements and topography changes in 3D. These tools should enhance the use of PlanetScope images for Earth Science applications.

Citation
Aati, S., Milliner, C., & Avouac, J. (2022). A new approach for 2-D and 3-D precise measurements of ground deformation from optimized registration and correlation of optical images and ICA-based filtering of image geometry artifacts. Remote Sensing of Environment, (under review).