Dynamic off-fault failure and tsunamigenesis at strike-slip restraining bends: Fully-coupled models of dynamic rupture, ocean acoustic waves, and tsunami in a shallow bay

Shuo Ma

Submitted September 11, 2022, SCEC Contribution #11899, 2022 SCEC Annual Meeting Poster #TBD

Inelastic off-fault deformation can lead to large tsunamigenesis in different tectonic settings. Here a mechanism for tsunami generation by strike-slip earthquakes that involves dynamic off-fault failure at restraining bends is presented. Dynamic rupture on a vertical strike-slip fault is modeled with undrained inelastic off-fault response incorporated by the Drucker-Prager yield criterion. I show that in a local transpressive stress regime dynamic off- fault failure at restraining bends produces significantly larger and more localized surface uplift than is produced by purely elastic dislocation models, resulting in a positive flower and coseismic pop-up structure. The larger uplift is due to frictional sliding with a thrust component on conjugate microfractures, modeled by inelastic deformation. The short-wavelength inelastic uplift, largely controlled by bend size, is shown to generate localized tsunami efficiently in a shallow bay by fully coupling dynamic rupture, ocean acoustic waves, and tsunami. Fully-coupled models also indicate that supershear rupture on a vertical planar strike-slip fault does not generate large tsunami as the large kinetic energy of supershear rupture is carried away by ocean acoustic waves. Dynamic off-fault failure at fault complexities, such as restraining bends and compressional stepovers, may need be urgently incorporated in the current tsunami hazard assessments in strike-slip environments.

This work is published in the following paper:

S. Ma, Dynamic off-fault failure and tsunamigenesis at strike-slip restraining bends: Fully-coupled models of dynamic rupture, ocean acoustic waves,and tsunami in a shallow bay, Tectonophysics (2022), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tecto.2022.229496

Key Words
restraining bends, off-fault plasticity, strike-slip earthquakes, tsunamigenesis

Citation
Ma, S. (2022, 09). Dynamic off-fault failure and tsunamigenesis at strike-slip restraining bends: Fully-coupled models of dynamic rupture, ocean acoustic waves, and tsunami in a shallow bay. Poster Presentation at 2022 SCEC Annual Meeting.


Related Projects & Working Groups
Fault and Rupture Mechanics (FARM)