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Virtual Shake Robot: Simulating Dynamics of Precariously Balanced Rocks for Overturning and Large-displacement Processes

Zhiang Chen, Ramon Arrowsmith, Jnaneshwar Das, Christine Wittich, Chris Madugo, & Albert Kottke

In Preparation March 15, 2023, SCEC Contribution #12703

Understanding the dynamics of precariously balanced rocks (PBRs) is important for seismic hazard analysis and rockfall prediction. Using a physics engine and robotic tools, we develop a virtual shake robot (VSR) to simulate the dynamics of PBRs for overturning and large-displacement processes. We present the background of physics engines and technical details of the VSR, including software architecture, mechanical structure, control system, and implementation procedures. Validation experiments show the median fragility contour from VSR simulation is within the 95\% prediction intervals from previous physical experiments, when PGV/PGA is greater than 0.08 $g$. Using a physical mini shake robot, we validate the qualitative consistency of fragility anisotropy between the VSR and physical experiments. By overturning cuboids on flat terrain, the VSR reveals the relationship between fragility and geometric dimensions (e.g., height-width and scaling ratios). The ground motion orientation and lateral pedestal support affect PBR fragility. Large-displacement experiments estimate rock trajectories for different ground motions, which is useful for understanding the fate of toppled PBRs. Ground motions positively correlate with large displacement statistics such as mean trajectory length, mean largest velocity, and mean terminal distance. The overturning and large displacement processes of PBRs provide complementary methods of ground motion estimation.

Citation
Chen, Z., Arrowsmith, R., Das, J., Wittich, C., Madugo, C., & Kottke, A. (2023). Virtual Shake Robot: Simulating Dynamics of Precariously Balanced Rocks for Overturning and Large-displacement Processes. Seismica, (in preparation).