Empirical Green Function Deconvolution of Broadband Surface Waves Rupture Directivity of 1992 Landers (M=7.3) California Earthquake

Adrian Velasco, Charles Ammon, & Thorne Lay

Published June 1994, SCEC Contribution #31

We present a simple method to determine gross temporal and spatial characteristics of faulting that can uniquely define the fault plane for a relatively large earthquake. The technique involves deconvolution of teleseismic and regional broadband surface waves (and/or body waves) of a small event (an empirical Green function) from the corresponding signals at the same stations for a large mainshock. This deconvolution corrects each mainshock seismic record for propagation and instrument response, and if the focal mechanisms and centroid depths are identical, deconvolution provides relative source time functions for the mainshock. Azimuthal variations of source time function width or subevent interference reveal the mainshock rupture directivity. Changes in the source mechanism during rupture can be evaluated for some classes of events. Our empirical Green function procedure is novel in its application to surface waves and its use for large (M ≥ 7) earthquakes. We perform synthetic tests to establish intrinsic limitations of the method. The procedure requires very little data processing and can be applied in near-real time with the current distribution of seismic stations that have dial-up data retrieval capability. It also provides a straightforward procedure for reducing bias in source duration estimates resulting from aspherical heterogeneity and for detecting anomalous longperiod radiation. We apply the procedure to the 28 June 1992 Landers, California (Mw = 7.3), earthquake. The Landers earthquake source duration lasted about 25 sec, and was dominated by two subevents with predominantly northnorthwestward rupture extending 60 to 70 km. The subevents show counterclockwise rotations of at least 120 in strike that correlate well with mapped surface rupture.

Key Words
United States, body waves, guided waves, Green function, elastic waves, teleseismic signals, Landers earthquake 1992, geometry, models, California, rupture, surface waves, Southern California, fault planes, propagation, seismic waves, San Bernardino County California, earthquakes

Velasco, A., Ammon, C., & Lay, T. (1994). Empirical Green Function Deconvolution of Broadband Surface Waves Rupture Directivity of 1992 Landers (M=7.3) California Earthquake. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, 84(3), 735-750.