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3-D crustal structure of the western United States: application of Rayleigh-wave ellipticity extracted from noise cross-correlations

Fan-Chi Lin, Victor C. Tsai, & Brandon Schmandt

Published 2014, SCEC Contribution #7121

We present a new 3-D seismic model of the western United States crust derived from a joint inversion of Rayleigh-wave phase velocity and ellipticity measurements using periods from 8 to 100 s. Improved constraints on upper-crustal structure result from use of short-period Rayleigh-wave ellipticity, or Rayleigh-wave H/V (horizontal to vertical) amplitude ratios, measurements determined using multicomponent ambient noise cross-correlations. To retain the amplitude ratio information between vertical and horizontal components, for each station, we perform daily noise pre-processing (temporal normalization and spectrum whitening) si- multaneously for all three components. For each station pair, amplitude measurements between cross-correlations of different components (radial–radial, radial–vertical, vertical–radial and vertical–vertical) are then used to determine the Rayleigh-wave H/V ratios at the two station locations. We use all EarthScope/USArray Tranportable Array data available between 2007 January and 2011 June to determine the Rayleigh-wave H/V ratios and their uncertainties at all station locations and construct new Rayleigh-wave H/V ratio maps in the western United States between periods of 8 and 24 s. Combined with previous longer period earthquake Rayleigh- wave H/V ratio measurements and Rayleigh-wave phase velocity measurements from both ambient noise and earthquakes, we invert for a new 3-D crustal and upper-mantle model in the western United States. Correlation between the inverted model and known geological features at all depths suggests good resolution in five crustal layers. Use of short-period Rayleigh-wave H/V ratio measurements based on noise cross-correlation enables resolution of distinct near surface features such as the Columbia River Basalt flows, which overlie a thick sedimentary basin.

Lin, F., Tsai, V. C., & Schmandt, B. (2014). 3-D crustal structure of the western United States: application of Rayleigh-wave ellipticity extracted from noise cross-correlations. Geophysical Journal International, 198, 656-670.