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Implementation of Iwan-Type Nonlinear Rheology in a 3D High-Order Staggered-Grid Finite-Difference Method

Daniel Roten, Te-Yang Yeh, Kim B. Olsen, Steven M. Day, & Yifeng Cui

Published July 28, 2023, SCEC Contribution #13305

We have implemented and verified a parallel-series Iwan-type nonlinear model in a 3D fourth-order staggered-grid velocity-stress finite difference method. The Masing unloading and reloading behavior is simulated by tracking an overlay of concentric von Mises yield surfaces. Lame parameters and failure stresses pertaining to each surface are calibrated to reproduce the stress-strain backbone curve, which is controlled by the reference strain assigned to a given depth level. The implementation is successfully verified against established codes for 1D and 2D SH-wave benchmarks. The capabilities of the method for large-scale nonlinear earthquake modeling are demonstrated for a M7.8 dynamic rupture ShakeOut scenario on the southern San Andreas fault. While ShakeOut simulations with a single yield surface reduces long period ground motion amplitudes by about 25% inside a wave guide in greater Los Angeles, Iwan nonlinearity further reduces the values by a factor of two. For example, inside the Whittier Narrows corridor spectral accelerations at a period of 3s are reduced from 1g in the linear case to about 0.8 in the bilinear case, and to 0.3-0.4g in the multi-surface Iwan nonlinear case, depending on the choice of reference strain. Normalized shear modulus reductions reach values of up to 50% in the wave guide and up to 75% in the San Bernardino basin at the San Andreas fault. We expect the implementation to be a valuable tool for future nonlinear 3D dynamic rupture and ground motion simulations in models with coupled source, path and site effects.

Roten, D., Yeh, T., Olsen, K. B., Day, S. M., & Cui, Y. (2023). Implementation of Iwan-Type Nonlinear Rheology in a 3D High-Order Staggered-Grid Finite-Difference Method. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America,. doi: 10.1785/0120230011.

Related Projects & Working Groups
Beyond Elasticity, GMSV, Ground Motion